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The Virginia Polytechnic Institute 1891-1905

By G. C. STONE ('08).

In the spring of 1891, the Board of Visitors of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute decided on a reorganization of the college. General L. L. Lomax, President, tendered his resignation to the Board on April 7th of this year, while it was in session in Richmond. The resignation was accepted, and the chairs of Biology, English, Book-keeping and Commercial law were declared vacant, and they remained vacant until the Board met again in June. Prof. Christian was acting president from this meeting until July.

On May 7th, 1891, J. M. McBryde, Ph. D., LL. D., President of the University of South Carolina, and a distinguished educator, was unanimously elected President of the College and Director of the Station. Dr. McBryde, however, did not assume charge of the Institute until the following July, at which time he presented to the Board a report embodying his views as to the needs of the college, and giving in detail his plan for a thorough reorganization of the courses of study. Of the old faculty, the following men were re-elected; Professors J. E. Christian, A. M.; J. H. Fitts; T. P. Campbell, A. M.; R. C. Price; W. C. Anderson; J. A. Harmon; R. T. Bray, M. E. ('89); and W. N. Cunningham. The following new men were appointed members of the faculty; E. E. Sheib, Ph. D.; E. A. Smyth, A. M.; and R. J. Davidson, A. M.; all from the University of South Carolina; also W. B. Alwood; D. O. Nourse, B. S., of the Station; E. P. Niles, D. V. M. of Iowa; and W. W. Hurt ('91). New departments were organized, and old ones reorganized as follows; Agricultural Chemistry (President McBryde); Mathematics and Civil Engineering (Prof. Christian, Assistant Prof. Harman, Instructor Hurt); Mechanical Engineering (Prof. Fitts); Horticulture, Entomology, and Mycology (Prof. Alwood); English, History, and Political Economy (Dr. Sheib); Biology (Prof. Smyth); Modern Languages (Adjunct Prof. Campbell); Electrical Engineering and Physics (Adjunct Prof. Anderson); General Chemistry, Geology and Mineralogy (Adjunct Prof. Price); Agriculture (Adjunct Prof. Nourse); Analytic Chemistry (Adjunct Prof. Davidson); Vet. Science (Adjunct Prof. Niles); Wood Work (Instructor Bray); Iron Work (Instructor Cunningham); Bookkeeping (Mr. Hurt). Mr. W. W. Hurt ('91) was also appointed Secretary of the Faculty; Mr. A. W. Drinkard ('93) was made Librarian; and Mr. G. W. Fleet became College Marshall. Lieut. D. C. Shanks, U. S. A., was detailed by the War Department to serve as Commandant of Cadets, and to give instructions in Military Science and Tactics.

In the session of 1891-'92, seven courses of instruction were offered, each leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in four years. These were courses in Agriculture, Horticulture, Applied Chemistry, General Science, Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Electrical Engineering. Besides these, certificates were given in Practical Mechanics and Practical Agriculture, courses of two years each. Also post-graduate courses were offered leading to the degrees of M. S., C. E., M. E., and E. E.

Several changes were made during this year in regard to the buildings and campus. The mess was removed from the basement of the First Academic Building to the wooden building which had been used before as a machine shop. The lecture rooms were fitted up with new benches and tables. The Effinger house and lot, adjoining the north-east corner of the campus, was purchased and added to the college grounds, and the house was fitted up for use as an Infirmary. Painter's Spring, near Col. Palmer's residence, was purchased, also, and furnished the water supply for the shops.

Up to this time, the cadet uniform had been of gray throughout, the blouse being buttoned with brass buttons. This session, however, the uniform was changed so as to consist of a dark blue blouse, made to fit closely and without brass buttons, a dark blue cap of chasseur pattern with cross-guns and college initials, and trousers of cadet gray with black stripes. The coatee which had been used on dress occasions was discarded. The class of '92 was the first to adopt a senior uniform. This differed from the under-classman's uniform in having the regulation U. S. A. cap, blouse trimmed with braid and with cross-guns and college initials on the collar, and trousers of dark blue with white stripe.

The publication of the Gray Jacket had been discontinued since 1889, but now it began a new life with T. G. Lewton, Editor-in-Chief, and F. D. Wilson, Business Manager. The catalogue for this year, the first one published under Dr. McBryde's administration, showed an attendance of one hundred and sixteen students.

On June 17th, the corps of cadets, consisting of two companies of infantry with thirty men each, under the charge of Col. Harman, attended the Decennial Celebration of Roanoke City. This was the first trip ever made by the corps as a military organization; that it was a decided success and enjoyed by all is well attested by the number and frequency of the trips made since that time.

In June, Adjunct Professor R. C. Price's department was divided. The chair of General Chemistry was made a separate and distinct one with Adjunct Professor Price at its head, while T. L. Watson ('90), Ph. D. from Cornell, was appointed Instructor in Geology and Mineralogy. Mr. C. G. Porter ('92) was made Instructor in Forge Work at the same time.

An appropriation of $3,750.00 was made by the Legislature for new buildings for the College. This money was used to complete and partially equip the Veterinary Infirmary, a wooden building of nine rooms, and the Forge and Foundry Building, a one-story brick structure, which was built near the main shops.

In October, 1892, several important changes were made in the military organization of the corps. A band of sixteen pieces, composed entirely of cadets, was organized with Cadet Clifford Anderson as leader. This was the first band in the history of the college; since that time, however, the band has been a permanent organization in the corps. About the same time, the Signal Corps and Company C were organized. The Signal Corps was composed of senior classmen and remained a permanent institution until June, 1905, when it was discontinued. Company C was organized on account of the increase in the number of students and was first commanded by Captain E. P. Miner. Cadet R. E. Wright was appointed Assistant Commandant, a new office created this session, and he was given the rank of major.

During this fall, the first football team in the history of the college was organized, with Prof. Anderson as captain. The first game was played at Blacksburg, against St. Albans, and resulted in a score of 14 to 10 in favor of Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College.

The attendance for this session was one hundred and seventy-seven; on account of the increase in the number of students the mess was removed from the old machine shop to the large wooden building known as the Pavilion, which had formerly served as a commencement hall; the Pavilion was therefore used for a double purpose this session.

The corps of cadets, consisting of three companies of infantry and the band, left on April 17th to attend the naval rendezvous in the harbor at Norfolk. Our picked company, commanded by Capt. A. T. Finch ('93) entered the competitive drill on April 19th against a company from the Virginia Military Institute and one from the Washington High School. Our company was adjudged the winner and carried the prize of $250.00 which had been offered to the best drilled company. With this money, Col. Harmon purchased during the next summer two three-inch rifles, which, with the two furnished by the government, were to be used by the battery of light artillery organized the following session. A powder magazine was built in April, which was used for storing the increased amount of powder and ammunition furnished to the college by the War Department.

Commencement was held in the old Pavilion, and many changes and promotions in the faculty were announced. Adjunct Professors T. P. Campbell, R. C. Price, D. O. Nourse, R. J. Davidson, and E. P. Niles were made full Professors. Col. J. A. Harmon was made Acting Professor of Mathematics. Mr. W. E. Anderson resigned his position as Adjunct Professor of Electricity and Physics and Superintendent of the Shops. Mr. W. N. Cunningham and Mr. R. T. Bray resigned the instructorships in Machine Work and Wood Work, respectively; and Messrs. P. C. Hubbard and .J. R. Parrott ('80-'82) were appointed to fill these vacancies. Mr. A. W. Drinkard ('93) resigned as Librarian and Mr. T. G. Lewton ('93) was appointed in his place. Mr. J. P. Harvey, of Blacksburg, Va., was appointed Musical Director, with the rank of major.

During the summer of 1893, a combined creamery and cheese-factory was erected out of the proceeds of farm crops, and put under the management of Prof. Nourse. In August, Mr. S. R. Pritchard, A. M., of Wofford College, S. C., was appointed Adjunct Professor of Electrical Engineering and Physics. Upon the recommendation of the President, the Board of Visitors established fellowships to be filled by graduates of the college who wished to take post-graduate courses. The holders of these fellowships were to act as assistants, devoting a certain amount of time to teaching, while pursuing graduate work in the various departments. The following graduates of the class of '93 were appointed to the fellowships: Mr. A. W. Drinkard, Assistant in English; Mr. J. W. Stull, Mathematics; Mr. R. E. Wright, Mechanical Engineering; and Mr. W. O. Frith, Horticulture.

During the summer, while en route to the Chicago Exposition, Prof. J. H. Fitts of the Department of Mechanical Engineering was killed in a railroad accident near Welch, W. Va. Prof. Fitts had been connected with the college for eight years. He was a man of exceptional abilities and was held in high esteem by both the student body and the faculty. Mr. L. S. Randolph, M. E., of Baltimore, Md., was appointed Prof. Fitts' successor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering.

Quite an addition was made to the Military Department during the session of 1903-4 by the organization of the Battery, Capt. A. H. Apperson ('94) commanding, for which provision had been made the previous session by acquiring the four rifles for its equipment. A gun-shed was made underneath the old Pavilion, then used for a dining hall. About the same time, the old machine shop, which had been used as a mess, was fitted up for a laundry under the supervision of Mr. D. O. Matthews ('83-'87).

The Pittsylvania Club, the first organization of its kind in the history of the school, was organized about the first of October, 1893, through the efforts of Cadets F. D. Wilson, C. Lee, and J. C. Dabney. The object of this club was to bring the cadets from Pittsylvania County into closer relationship with one another, and to assist in promoting the welfare of the new men from Pittsylvania. It was also desired to advertise the school more among the people of that county so as to increase the representation at the college. A constitution was drawn up for the present and future guidance of the club, and all meetings and transactions were conducted according to parliamentary rules.

Cadets from other places followed the example of the Pittsylvania Club until, in the course of time, almost every county of Virginia, and every other State from which there were students, had an organized representation in the college.

On the 18th of October the college suffered a severe loss in the death of Prof. J. E. Christian, who had so ably filled the chair of Mathematics. He was the senior member of the faculty, having been connected with the college since 1880. He was admired and beloved by the students, and his death was a great blow to all.

The corps of cadets, consisting of three companies of infantry, the battery, and the band, two hundred and thirty-six men in all, left college on the twenty-ninth of the following May to attend the unveiling of the Soldiers' and Sailors Monument in Richmond, Va. The battalion remained in Richmond until June 2nd and was quartered in Camp McBryde near the Lee Monument. In the parade on May 30th, the cadets acted as escort to Governor Chas. T. O'Ferral. The band, accompanied by a large number of other cadets, serenaded the Governor on the night of the 31st, and all were most cordially received. The next afternoon, the Governor reviewed the battalion in Capitol Square.

In June, S. M. Barton, Ph. D., of Winchester, Va., was appointed Adjunct Professor of Mathematics and Civil Engineering. The following graduates of the class of '94 were appointed to fellowships and other positions in the college: Mr. F. D. Wilson, Assistant in Chemistry; Mr. R. P. Whittle, Electrical Engineering; Mr. J. F. Strauss, Horticulture; Messrs. S. V. Lovenstein, A. T. Eskridge, and W. B. Ellett, Assistant Chemists to the Station; Mr. T. G. Lewton, Librarian; and Mr. A. H. Apperson, Superintendent of the Electric Light Plant.

During the summer, the land to the right of the road leading to the Experiment Station was levelled up, a boulevard was constructed from the old chestnut tree to the Experiment Station house, and preparations were made for building a row of houses for the faculty nearby and facing this boulevard. About the same time, excavations were made and the floors of the two basement rooms of the Second Academic Building were lowered. These rooms were then fitted up for lecture rooms, which were very badly needed.

The building known as the New Barracks, or Barracks No.2, was completed in September, 1904. This was a four-story, brick building with fifty-six rooms, and almost doubled the dormitory accommodation of the college. Later in the spring the large two-story brick building with a mess hall on the first floor and a commencement hall on the second, was completed. This Hall met a pressing demand; for it provided suitable and separate places for the dining hall and the auditorium, whereas up to this time, the old Pavilion had answered for both. However, the mess was not removed to the new quarters until the following September. Both the Mess Hall and the Barracks were erected out of the appropriation of $24,000.00 secured from the Legislature of 1894. During session, six brick houses for the professors were built along the boulevard, facing toward the south, and forming what is known as Faculty Row.

The first football game with the Virginia Military Institute was played at Staunton on November 28, 1894, score of 10 to 6 in favor of the Virginia Military Institute. Since that time, the teams of the two schools have played nearly every year, with varying results, sometimes one and then the other winning.

Owing to the increased number of students this year ('94-'95), Company D was organized with Capt. J. B. Carper commanding. This made now a total of four infantry companies, battery and band. The battery was still further equipped this year by the purchase of forty sabres, mainly through the efforts of the cadets, aided by the college. After this the drill for the battery included that of dismounted cavalry, as well as that of artillery.

The first annual hand-book of the Young Men's Christian Association was issued in the fall of 1895. The Association had quarters of its own and devoted much effort to looking after and caring for the new boys when they came to the college. The first issue of "The Bugle" also appeared at the end of this session. "The Bugle" is the college annual, published by the senior class, and the book issued that year speaks well for those who constituted the Bugle Board, of whom J. C. Dabney ('95) was Editor-in-Chief and C. J. Richardson ('95), Business Manager. Since that time, no senior class has ever failed to publish an annual.

The commencement exercises this session were held in new Auditorium for the first time. Judge John Gardner, who had served the college a number of years as Treasurer, had died on December 7th, and Mr. Chas. I. Wade, of Christiansburg, Va., was appointed his successor. Adjunct Professor Pritchard was now made a full Professor, and Instructor Hurt, an Assistant Professor. The new men added to the faculty were Mr. W. D. Saunders, of Franklin County, Va., Superintendent of the Creamery and Assistant Professor of Dairy Husbandry; Mr. W. G. Conner ('92), Instructor in Wood Work; Mr. J. M. Johnson, a graduate of Miller School, Instructor in Forge and Foundry Work, to succeed Mr. C. G. Porcher, who resigned during the spring; Mr. A. T. Eskridge ('94), Instructor in Geology to succeed Mr. T. L. Watson, resigned; Mr. W. H. Rasche, a graduate of Miller School, Assistant in Drawing; Mr. L. W. Jerrell ('94), Assistant in Wood Work. The members of the class of '95 appointed to fellowships and other positions in the college were: Mr. W. E. Dodd, History; Mr. R. I. Roop, Mathematics; Mr. G. T. Surface, Modern Languages; Mr. C. A. Wheeler, Mechanical Engineering; Mr. J. W. Sample, Chemistry, Mr. W. A. Perry, Librarian; and Mr. R. C. Stuart was put in charge of the Steam Heating Department. After the resignation of Dr. S. M. Barton, in August, the chair of Mathematics and Civil Engineering was divided. Col. W. M. Patton, C. E., of Lexington, Va. an engineer of reputation and ability, was elected to the chair of Civil Engineering. Col. D. C. Shanks, who had been appointed Commandant of Cadets the preceding year, was made Acting Professor of Mathematics.

Several measures of considerable importance to the school were enacted by the Legislature during the winter 1895-'96. By one of these acts, the name of the school was changed from the "Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College" to the "Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College and Polytechnic Institute." From this time on, it was commonly known as the "Virginia Polytechnic Institute," and is now generally spoken of as the "V. P. I." The Legislature also allowed the Institute an annual appropriation of $15,000 for two years, and authorized the Board of Visitors to issue bonds to the amount of $15,000.00 in order to secure money for the erection of new water works. Accordingly, the Board of Visitors purchased fifty acres of land from the Houston estate, together with the magnificent supply of water contained thereon. Another act of the Legislature gave to the Station full power to regulate and enforce the quarantining of cattle; while still another act conferred upon the Station all necessary powers for the extermination of insects injurious to fruit culture. Dr. E. P. Niles and Prof. W. B. Alwood were appointed to the offices of State Veterinarian and State Entomologist, respectively, with the power to enforce their regulations.

The total attendance for this session was three hundred and thirty-six. Fourteen days were added to the Christmas holidays that the session might be extended in order to enable the corps of cadets to attend the Confederate Reunion in Richmond the latter part of June. The commencement exercises closed on the nineteenth of June, and the cadets who expected to accompany the corps on this trip remained on the grounds until the following Monday. On the morning of the 24th, the battalion, consisting of four companies of infantry, the battery, band and staff, boarded the train at Christiansburg at 6:00 A. M. They arrived at Richmond about 6:00 P. M. of the same day, and were escorted by one of the militia companies to their camp near the Soldiers' Home. The battalion gave exhibition drills and parades, which were enjoyed by the large crowds that witnessed them. These exhibitions were very highly complimented, but the attractive feature of the trip was the sham battle, which was especially enjoyed by the veterans. On Thursday, the corps was assigned a prominent position in the great parade incident to the laying of the corner-stone of the Jefferson Davis Monument. The cadet band was especially honored on this occasion by a request to furnish music during a part of the exercises. This band did, with a great deal of credit to itself. This afternoon, after the parade, Col. Shanks officially announced the close of the session of 1895-'96, the battalion was disbanded, and the cadets returned to their homes.

Changes in the faculty were made in June as follows: Instructor Parrott was made Assistant Professor; Assistants A. W. Drinkard ('93), J. W. Stull ('93), F. D. Wilson ('94), and L. W. Jerrell ('95), were made Instructors. Mr. F. S. Roop ('97), D. V. M., was made Instructor in Veterinary Science; and Mr. C. G. Guignard ('95), Assistant in Machine Work. The following members of the class of ('96) were appointed to fellowships: Mr. F. P. Turner, Mathematics and Assistant Commandant; Mr. R. R. Lewis, Physics; Mr. C. Lee, Electrical Engineering; Mr. W. M. Scott, Horticulture. Dr. Kent Black, one of the Institute physicians, tendered his resignation.

The session of 1896-'97 passed rapidly and with few events of note. Mr. F. D. Wilson ('94), resigned his Instructorship in Chemistry in October, and Mr. W. B. Ellett was appointed to fill the vacancy. The new system of water works was completed during the spring; it included a storage reservoir of fifty thousand gallons capacity situated on the hill south of the campus with an elevation of one hundred and fifty feet above the parade ground. In June, Assistant W. H. Rasche was made Instructor, and Mr. R. C. Stuart appointed Assistant in Machine Work. Mr. C. B. Hardy ('97) was appointed to the fellowship in Physics, and Mr. H. H. Hurt to the fellowship in French and History. Mr. E. V. Jones, Jr., ('97) was appointed Librarian to succeed Mr. W. A. Perry, who resigned. The attendance for this session was the same as for the last, three hundred and thirty-six.

The first issue of "The Cohee" appeared. December 8, 1897. This paper was a weekly, published under the auspices of the General Athletic Association, for the purpose of increasing and broadening the interests of the corps in athletics. Mr. S. H. Sheib was made Editor-in-Chief, and the paper was published until June 22nd, when it was discontinued. A wooden building of one story was erected just behind the Creamery and equipped with hydraulic machinery for the making of cider and with vats and tanks for storing it. This building was assigned to the Horticultural Department for the canning and preserving of fruits aud vegetables.

Rev. Geo. T. Gray, senior chaplain for the Institute, died on the twenty-ninth of October and was buried with military honors. Col. D. C. Shanks, who had been Commandant of Cadets for four years, was removed in June by the War Department. Colonel Shanks had been an excellent Commandant and, by his energetic efforts, the Military Department of the Institute was brought up to a higher standard than ever before. An attempt was made to retain him by appealing to the Secretary of War, but his regiment was ordered to Cuba and he was obliged to accompany it. Mr. A. T. Finch, M. D., ('92) was appointed Commandant and also Assistant Professor of Physiology and Materia Medica.

Dr. F. S. Roop resigned as Instructor in Veterinary Science, and Mr. C. M. McCulloch, D. V. S., M. D., of Howardsville, Va., was appointed Assistant Professor of Veterinary Science and State Veterinarian. Assistant Professor Parrott was made Adjunct Professor, and Mr. P. A. Hobday ('98) was appointed Librarian. Mr. F. C. Carper was made Musical Director to succeed Mr. J. P. Harvey, who resigned. Mr. J. S. A. Johnson secured a fellowship in Drawing and was appointed Assistant Commandant; Mr. M. Ferguson, in Mathematics and Mr. H. L. Price, Horticulture,—all graduates of 1898.

In July, Mr. D. O. Matthews ('82-'87) was appointed Marshal of the Institute and given the supervision of the Institute grounds. In August, Dr. E. E. Sheib and Assistant Prof. Hurt resigned; and R. H. Hudnall, M. A., Ph. D., of Brandon, Miss., succeeded Dr. Sheib as Professor of English. Mr. G. W. Walker, A. M., was appointed Assistant Professor of Mathematics, English, and Latin. Physics was detached from the Department of Electrical Engineering and Mr. C. E. Vawter, Jr., B. S. of Crozet, Va., was appointed Acting Professor of Mathematics and Physics. Mr. A. W. Drinkard ('93) was made Secretary of the Faculty.

During this summer, a refrigerating plant with a capacity of one ton of ice or two tons of refrigeration per diem was erected. This much needed improvement made the Institute independent of ice-harvests, and, with the cold storage room attached, enabled meats to be kept for any length of time.

The attendance for 1898-'99 was three hundred and three, less than that of the preceding session by thirty. Capt. C. E. Vawter, the able and honored Rector of the Board of Visitors, resigned after having rendered fourteen years of the most valuable service to the College. The Hon. J. Thompson Brown, of Bedford County, was appointed to fill the vacancy. Acting Prof. C. E. Vawter was made Professor of Mathematics and Physics; and Assistants J. S. A. Johnson ('98) and H. L. Price ('98) were made instructors. Mr. J. L. Phillips ('97) was appointed Instructor in Entomology, and Mr. P. C. Moulton, Assistant in Machine Work. Fellows from the class of '99 were appointed as follows: Mr. J. E. Bonsack, Mathematics and Chemistry; Mr. W. F. Bell, Mechanical Engineering; Mr. B. S. Johnson, Wood Work. Mr. C. L. Allen ('99) was made Librarian to succeed Mr. P. A. Hobday, resigned; and Mr. C. D. Taliaferro became Secretary to the President.

In September, 1899, the offices of the President, Commandant, and Treasurer were moved from the First Academic Building to the "Rock House," formerly occupied as a residence by Prof. J. A. Norton, and subsequently by Prof. Alwood. This Rock House was destroyed by fire in February, 1900, after which the executive offices were removed to the house formerly occupied by Prof. Christian, and later by the commandants. The Legislature this winter authorized the issue of one hundred thousand dollars in bonds to secure money for buildings and equipment. The out-buildings and fences of Prof. Christian's old residence were removed, and the grounds thrown into the campus during the following spring. The Virginia Polytechnic Society was organized in October, 1899, and was addressed a number of times during the session by members of the faculty and others. Dr. McCulloch resigned his position on February 1st and was succeeded on April 1st by Dr. John Spencer, of Ontario, Canada.

The corps of cadets, under command of Col. A. T. Finch, attended the Carnival in Richmond from May 15th to 19th. On arriving at Richmond, the corps was assigned to quarters in the Auditorium at the fair grounds. The battalion was given a prominent place in the parade on the 18th, and was the recipient of much praise all along the route. The battalion was in splendid condition and expected to give several exhibition drills; but the rain prevented all except one, a dress parade which was highly complimented.

Col. Finch ('93) resigned his office as Commandant and Professor of Military Science and Tactics in June and was succeeded by Mr. J. S. A. Johnson ('98), who was also made Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering. Instructors W. G. Connor and W. H. Rasche were promoted to Assistant Professors. Of the class of 1900, Mr. R. H. C. Beverly was appointed to the fellowship in Mechanical Engineering; Mr. G. L. Fentress in Mathematics and French; Mr. J. A. Waddel in Mechanical Technology, and First Assistant Commandant; Mr. S. H. McGregor in Wood Work, and Second Assistant Commandant; Mr. J. A. Jackson ('00) was made Librarian to succeed Mr. C. L. Allen, resigned. Mr. J. H. Shultz, of Lynchburg, Va., was appointed Mess Steward, with the rank of major on the staff.

The Camper property, adjoining the Institute grounds on the east, was purchased, the buildings and fence removed, and the grounds made a part of the campus. A wooden cottage was erected on this lot and assigned to the steward, Mr. Shultz, who moved into it during the summer. The Starkey house had been purchased and remodelled for the quarters of the Uniform Department, lately established. This department was put under the direction of Mr. T. J. Walsh, formerly First Assistant Cutter at the West Point Military Academy. The total attendance this session was three hundred and forty-three.

Prof. Pritchard's residence, a frame building on the boulevard, was completed and occupied in September, 1900. Barracks No. 3, a brick building of four stories, containing rooms, was finished about the same time. The power and heating plant (a large stone structure situated to the north of the dormitory, with a large coal-storage bin adjoining it) was also completed this fall. It was used only as a heating plant until the next April, when the electric light plant was moved from the machine shops and installed in this building. The heat and light plant then furnished the power for the electric lights on the campus and in town; for the water-pumping station; and steam heat for the barracks, and later for the Science Hall and Y. M. C. A. building.

Immediately after the final examinations, on the first of June, the corps of cadets left Blacksburg to attend the Pan_American Exposition at Buffalo, N. Y. The corps consisted of four infantry companies, battery, band, and drum corps, numbering three hundred and eighty-six in all, and was in charge of Col. J. S. A. Johnson, the Commandant. The cadets were quartered in tents on the exposition grounds and were given free passes in and out of the grounds. They gave a dress parade or a battalion drill every afternoon on the Plaza and were complimented on the excellent showing which they made before the large and appreciative crowds gathered to witness the exhibition. Before returning, the cadets made an excursion to Niagara Falls and rode around the Gorge, both of which trips were thoroughly enjoyed by everyone. The corps returned to the Institute about the ninth of June, in time to celebrate the commencement exercises before being dismissed for the session.

Several changes in the faculty were made in June. Instructors F. D. Wilson ('94), H. L. Price ('98), were promoted to Assistant Professors. Assistant Waddel was made an Instructor. Mr. A. P. Spencer, of Ontario, Canada, was appointed Instructor in Animal Husbandry; Mr. S. B. Andrews, Instructor in Machine Work; and Mr. H. N. Faulkner, Assistant in Forge and Foundry. Appointments to fellowships from the class of '01 were made as follows: Mr. M. W. Davidson, French; Mr. J. M. Hicks, Mathematics and English, and Second Assistant Commandant; Mr. W. M. Brodie, Librarian, and Third Assistant Commandant; Mr. A. H. Fleet, Mathematics; Mr. J. H. Gwathmey, Foundry Work; Mr. T. G. Wood, Botany and English. Mr. L. M. Hale ('93-'96) was appointed Superintendent of the Laundry.

During the summer of 1901, the Willis property adjoining the Institute grounds on the east side was purchased, the fence removed, and the grounds thrown into the campus. The Willis house, remodelled and transformed into a nice wooden cottage, was assigned to the Marshal, Mr. D. O. Matthews, as a residence. To the horticultural department were assigned twenty-five acres of the college farm behind the orchard; and the gardens between the boulevard and the creek south of it were added to the athletic and parade ground which had been found to be too small.

The new Science Hall was now well under course of erection. Although it was not completed, most of the departments of science moved into their new quarters at the beginning of session 1901-'02, and began work at once. The new hall was a brick building of three stories, besides attic and basement, situated at the north corner of the quadrangle. The basement was devoted to various lecture rooms and the dynamo laboratory of the Electrical Engineering Department. On the first floor was the Department of Biology with a lecture room, a large laboratory, two smaller laboratories, and a museum; here also was the Department of Physics with its large lecture room and four laboratories. On the second floor was the Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Metallurgy, and Industrial Chemistry, with a large lecture room, office, supply and preparation room, assay room, and three laboratories; also the Departments of Geology and Mineralogy with a large lecture room, office, laboratory, and museum. The third floor was divided into three large laboratories for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis, one lecture room, an office and library, supply rooms, and five smaller laboratories. Photographic rooms were fitted up in the attic.

After the removal of the scientific departments to the Science Hall, the First Academic Building was fitted up and assigned to the Departments of Civil Engineering and Mechanical Engineering, with one room reserved for the Armory. The remainder of the building was divided up into Drawing rooms, the Civil Engineering lecture rooms, the Mechanical Engineering offices and lecture rooms, and the Mechanical laboratory. The first and second floors of the Second Academic Building were assigned to the Departments of English and Modern Languages; while the third floor was devoted to the Library, and the halls for the Lee and Maury Literary Societies.

The handsome building of the Young Men's Christian Association was opened at the beginning of the session 1901-'02, with Mr. J. M. McIntyre, of Salem, Va., as General Secretary. This building of unhewn stone, four stories in height and situated near the east end of the boulevard, contained reading rooms, game rooms, offices, reception and committee rooms, auditorium, gymnasium, baths and lockers, and dormitory rooms. As the building belonged to the students it soon became practically the social and religious center of student life. The credit for its erection and equipment is due to the efforts of Mr. Lawrence Priddy ('98) who took a deep and vital interest in everything connected with the Association and its work.

Until this session, the Institute had been allowed an annual appropriation of $15,000.00 During this winter, however, the amount of the appropriation was increased to $25,000.00 annually and a special allowance of $25,000.00 was made for extraordinary expenses.

On April 1st, 1902, the corps of cadets, consisting of five companies of infantry, battery, band and drum corps left Christiansburg for the Exposition at Charleston, S. C., under the command of Col. J. S. A. Johnson. (Company E had been organized the preceding fall with Capt. B. Bolling commanding). Arriving at Charleston the next day, the cadets were assigned to tents conveniently located on the exposition grounds. The exhibition drills given by the battalion each afternoon were well attended and highly complimented. The trip was especially enjoyable from a social standpoint, as the cadets received every attention and kindness from the people of Charleston and the Citadel cadets. On Wednesday, April 9th, the corps was assigned an important position in the parade which escorted President Roosevelt to the exposition grounds. Upon reaching the parade ground the troops were reviewed by the President and his party; and when our band began to play "Dixie" just as the battalion was approaching the reviewing stand, the crowd cheered to the echo. The ladies of the presidential party waved their handkerchiefs and clapped their hands, and the President's mouth expanded to a hearty smile which seemed to indicate that he, too, was "dee-lighted." The cadets broke camp after the parade and boarded the train for Christiansburg very enthusiastic over the exposition, and highly pleased with the trip in general. The attendance for this session was four hundred and eighty-six, and with a few exceptions, every man accompanied the corps to the exposition.

The President's new house, a handsome brick residence in the Grove, was completed in April and Dr. Mcbryde moved into it the latter part of the month. The Hoge house, near Mr. Ed Black's, with six acres of land attached, had been rented by the Institute and used as an Infirmary; but now the Infirmary was removed to the brick residence just vacated Dr. McBryde, and the Hoge house and lot purchased and signed to Prof. Campbell. During the session a complete system of sewerage with a new sewage disposal plant completed.

In June, changes were made in the faculty for next year and announced as follows: Promotions—Assistant Professor Spencer to be Professor of Veterinary Science, to succeed Prof. E. P. Niles, who resigned in May; Adjunct Professor Parrott to be Professor of Mechanic Arts; Assistant Professor Johnson to be Adjunct Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and Professor of Military Science and Tactics; Assistant Professors W. D. Saunders, G. W. Walker, F. D. Wilson, and H. L. Price to be Adjunct Professors; and Instructor A. W. Drinkard to be Assistant Professor. Appointments—Mr. M. Ferguson, Ph. D. ('96), Assistant Professor of Agriculture; Mr. J. C. Ferneyhough, D. V. M., ('98), State Veterinarian and Assistant Professor of Veterinary Science; Mr. W. M. Brodie ('01), Assistant in Mathematics and First Assistant Commandant; Mr. T. G. Wood ('01), Second Assistant Commanriant; Mr. J. F. Strauss ('94), Assistant in Drawing; Mr. C. P. Miles ('01), Assistant in French and Chemistry , Mr. F. M. Spiller ('02), Drawing; Mr. C. Williams ('02), Drawing; and Mr. C. D. Taliaferro, Registrar. Mr. J. L. Phillips ('97) was appointed Assistant State Entomologist and Pathologist. Fellowships (Class '02): Mr. C. L. Proctor, Spanish; Mr. H. L. Davidson, Chemistry; Mr. W. F. Tams, Mathematics; Mr. W. P. Tams, Mathematics; Mr. J. I. Palmore, English and Third Assistant Commandant; Mr. J. W. C. West, Engineering; Mr. G. R. Talcott, Engineering; Mr. P. S. Murrill, English and Spanish; Mr. P. T. Jones, Mathematics; Mr. W. T. Young, English and Engineering; Mr. A. O. Arvin, Wood Work; and Mr. W. T. Wilson, Drawing.

Prof. Campbell moved into the Hoge house in September, 1902, and his old residence, which had been occupied in previous years by Dr. M. P. Scott and by Prof. Fitts, was fitted up and assigned to the Department of Agriculture. The out-buildings and fence were removed and the grounds cleared up and made a part of the campus. The Gitt property, adjoining the Institute grounds on the north-east, had already been purchased, the fence removed, and the grounds thrown into the campus. The frame house erected on this lot was completed this month and assigned to Prof. Parrott. Instructor Lee's residence, erected on a part of the lot purchased from the Willis estate, was also completed about the same time. Dormitory No. 4, a four-story brick building containing sixty rooms, was completed the latter part of September; as was also the first addition to the Machine Shop, a two-story brick wing, thirty-eight by seventy feet.

The new Infirmary, in the President's old house, was opened at the beginning of the session with Miss Frances Brockenbrough, a trained nurse of experience, as Superintendent. The old house had been entirely remodelled during the summer, the front changed, and a two-story "L," containing two wards of sixteen beds each, added on the south side. When finished, the building contained the two wards, private rooms, bath-rooms, nurses' rooms, dining room, waiting room, surgeon's office and kitchen, and was equipped with beds, tables, chairs, operating tables, etc., of best modern make for hospital use. Prof. Alwood's residence, a large brick house in the old orchard and in line with the other houses of Faculty Row, was completed and occupied in the fall.

A post-office for the collection and distribution of students' mail, and a book-room for the sale of text-books and supplies, were established in Barracks No. 1, in the marshal's office, and the room adjoining.

The attendance this season was the largest so far in the history of the college, the number of students being six hundred and twenty-seven. On account of the increased attendance, another company of infantry, Company F, was organized, commanded by Capt. W. R. Crute. This made six companies of infantry and so the battalion looked more uniform than when it was composed of an odd number of companies. The other organizations of the corps were the battery, band and drum corps, signal corps, and staff.

Prof. E. A. Smyth, A. M., was made Dean of the Faculty in June, 1903. At the same time, Mr. J. E. Williams, M. A., Ph. D., of the University of Virginia, was appointed Adjunct Professor of Mathematics; Mr. H. L. Wilson, B. S., Adjunct Professor of Geology and Mineralogy; Mr. J. B. McBryde, A. B., C. E., of Blacksburg, Va., Assistant Professor of Organic Chemistry; Mr. C. M. Newman, M. A., Ph. D., of Bristol, Va., Assistant Professor of English; Mr. G. L. Fentress ('99), B. S., M. S., of Norfolk, Va., Instructor in Mathematics; Mr. J. R. C. Brown, A. B., of Penn Laird, Va., Instructor in Spanish and History; Mr. P. H. Eley, A. B. of Tennessee, Instructor in Spanish and English; Mr. J. H. Gibboney ('01) B. S., Assistant in Analytical Chemistry, and Assistant Chemist to the Station. Assistant Professors W. G. Connor ('92), W. H. Rasche, and M. Ferguson ('96), were promoted to Adjunct Professors; Assistants W. M. Brodie ('01), T. G. Wood ('01), C. P. Miles ('01), and W. A. P. Moncure ('01), to Instructors. To the fellowships from the class of '03 were appointed Mr. L. O'Shaughnessy, Surveying; Mr. W. L. Blair, Mechanical Technology and Drawing, and Fourth Assistant Commandant; Mr. G. A. Chalkley, Surveying and Drawing; Mr. R. Sale, Agriculture; Mr. J. S. Counselman, Surveying and Drawing; Mr. J. T. Neely, Mathematics and Mechanical Engineering; Mr. H. B. Goodloe, Electrical Engineering; Messrs. C. H. Carpenter and S. A. Obenshain, of the class of '03, were appointed Assistants in Surveying.

In August, Miss Mary G. Lacy, of Lynchburg, Va., was appointed Librarian, and Maj. B. R. Selden, of Richmond, Va., was made Registrar to succeed Mr. C. D. Taliaferro, who died in JUly. The Laundry and Tailor's Shop, a large brick building with laundry on first floor and tailoring department on second, both equipped with modern facilities, was completed and occupied in September. The old Starkey cottage, which had been occupied by the tailoring department, was refitted and assigned to Mr. J. L. Phillips, the State Entomologist and Pathologist, for office and laboratories.

A new college weekly, "The Virginia Tech," was established during the fall of 1903, with Mr. J. B. McBryde as Editor-in-Chief. This paper was the official organ of the Athletic Association and corresponded somewhat to "The Cohee," which had been established and discontinued in the session of 1897-98. The Board of Associate Editors consisted of four members of the Faculty, and a representative from each one of the classes. The first issue appeared October 7th. Thc bleachers, with a seating capacity of one thousand, were erected in April by "The Tech," and presented to the Athletic Association.

During the winter, the Legislature gave the college an appropriation of $165,000.00 for the erection of new buildings and the purchase of equipment. The new Administration Building, erected on the site of the old Rock House, which had been destroyed by fire, was completed in April and the offices occupied by the executive department. The new building, of undressed stone, was made larger and more convenient than the one formerly used for this purpose. It contained fire-proof vaults, and ten office rooms, occupied by the President, the Commandant, the Registrar, the Treasurer, the secretaries, and the heads of the various departments.

On April 19, 1904, President McBryde was unanimously elected President of the University of Virginia. President McBryde, however, declined the honor and stated his reasons for so doing in a letter addressed to the Board of Visitors. Extracts from this letter were published in the daily papers at the time.

Probably the most successful of all the trips taken by the corps of cadets of this Institute up to this time was the one to the World's Fair at St. Louis, in the spring of 1904. The V. P. I. train left Christiansburg on the morning of May 31st in two sections. The infantry battalion of six companies constituted the first section; the battery, band, signal corps, drum and bugle corps, the staff, post-graduates, and former students, the second section. Two Pullman coaches were attached to the second section and furnished accommodations for the ladies, Institute officers and guests. The entire party numbered five hundred and fifty-four. The cadets, on their arrival at St. Louis, were assigned to a well-arranged camp, conveniently located on the exposition grounds. The frequent heavy rains during the week which was spent there greatly interfered with the exhibition drills and parades which had been planned; but those which were given on the Plaza of St. Louis were witnessed by a large concourse of people. The movements were all executed with a remarkable degree of precision and accuracy, and received nothing but the highest commendation from all sides. Of the large number of military organizations present from all sections of the country, the universal verdict was that our corps easily ranked next to that of West Point. The corps broke camp in St. Louis on the eighth of June, and returned to the Institute in time for commencement. The total attendance for the session was seven hundred and twenty-seven.

Many important changes were made in the faculty for the session of 1904-'05. Prof. R. C. Price, Adjunct Prof. H. L. Wilson, and Instructors J. R. C. Brown, and P. H. Eley, resigned. Adjunct Professors G. W. Walker, F. D. Wilson, J. E. Williams, and H. L. Price, were made full Professors. Assistants J. H. Gibboney, H. L. Davidson and L. O'Shaugnessy were made Instructors. Mr. T. L. Watson ('90), M. S. Ph. D., formerly Professor at Denison University, Ohio, was made Professor of Geology and Mineralogy. Mr. A. M. Soule, B. S. A., formerly Director of Station and Professor of Agriculture at the University of Tennessee, was made Professor of Animal Husbandry and Director of the Station; Mr. W. B. Ellett ('94), Ph. D., of Christiansburg, Virginia, was made Assistant Chemist to the Station; Mr. F. H. Abbot, M. A. of Bellevue, Virginia, Assistant Professor of English; Mr. J. R. Fain, B. S., formerly Assistant Professor of Agriculture at the University of Tennessee, Assistant Professor in Agronomy; Mr. P. O. Vanatter, of the University of Tennessee, Instructor in Agronomy; and Mr. H. S. Worthington, M. A., of Alexandria, Virginia, Instructor in Modern Languages. Fellowships were assigned to the class of '04 as follows: Mr. F. L. Robeson, Mathematics and Drawing; Mr. H. H. Gary, Mathematics; Mr. G. W. Wade, Laboratory Electricity; Mr. J. J. Davis, Modern Languages; and Mr. W. E. Wine, Drawing. The following members of the class of '04 were made Assistants: Mr. L. C. Burton, Wood Work; Mr. R. R. Page, Field Surveying; Mr. W. A. Dunn, Field Surveying; Mr. L. L. Kelly, Drawing , and Mr. D. M. Cloyd, Jr., Fourth Assistant Commandant.

At this time, too, several important changes were made in the organization of the Institute. Four Departments were created each with its own faculty and dean: Academic Department, Prof. T. P. Campbell, Dean; Scientific, Prof. R. J. Davidson, Dean; Engineering, Prof. W. M. Patton, Dean; Agricultural, Prof. A. M. Soule, Dean. Prof. E. A. Smyth was already Dean of the Faculty. The President, the Dean of the Faculty, the Deans of the Departments, and the Commandant, composed the Executive Council.

A geological survey of the State of Virginia, with special reference to its economic resources, was authorized by the State Board of Agriculture, and by the Board of Visitors of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute at a meeting of the Board held during the summer of 1904. Dr. T. L. Watson, Professor of Geology in this Institute, was appointed geologist in charge of this survey. It was the purpose of the survey to make complete investigations of the mineral resources of the State that are of commercial value, and to publish separate reports on each individual subject as fast as completed. By the close of the year 1905 published reports were issued on the following subjects: "The Zinc and Lead Deposits"; "The Water Powers"; "The Brown Ores"; "The Clay Deposits and Clay Industry"; "Cement Materials and Cement Industry"; "The Copper Deposits"; and "Building and Ornamental Stones." Much of the work was planned in connection with the United States Geological Survey, which not only enlarged the scope of the work, but secured for each problem the services of an expert geologist.

During the summer, the hill between Barracks No. 3 and the site for the new Barracks No. 5, which was finished in January following, was cut down and faced with a heavy stone wall so as to continue the parade ground in the form of a terrace in front of these two buildings. On the west side of this terrace was built a handsome flight of stone steps. Dean Smyth's residence, a large brick house in the old orchard, and in line with the other houses of Faculty Row, was completed and occupied about September 1st. Mr. W. E. Barlow, M. A., Ph. D., of the University of Iowa, was appointed Assistant Professor of Chemistry in September. Mr. W. B. Alwood had resigned his chair of Entomology and Mycology in August.

Up to this time all travel and hauling between Blacksburg and Christiansburg had been done by means of hacks and wagons, and this was necessarily very inconvenient, even when the roads were at their best. At last, however, after many disappointments, a railroad was built; and the arrival in Blacksburg on September 15th of the first passenger train was an incident of great importance to the school and the town. The road was built during the summer by the Virginia Anthracite Coal and Railway Company, Prof. L. S. Randolph, of the Institute, President. A small depot was built on the lot to the south side of Dr. K. Black's residence and southwest of Kipps' Hotel, the old Amiss House. Four passenger trains each way were run daily, three of which carried mail. Evers before its completion the road had been dubbed "The Huckleberry," and "The Huckleberry" it will no doubt remain for many years to come.

The attendance for 1904-'05 was seven hundred and thirty-one; since the dining hall could not accommodate so large a number at once, the large auditorium room over the mess was turned over to the Dining Hall Department; and a large four-story brick addition in the rear of the hall was completed in September. The building now contained two large dining halls with a seating capacity of nine hundred, one private dining room for instructors and graduates, seating fifty people; five storage rooms, dish rooms, kitchen, bakeshop, linen room, and eleven dormitory rooms on the fourth floor, known as the Y. M. C. A. Annex. The building was heated from the basement.

The second large addition to the Machine Shop was also completed in September. The original building was the old Preston and Olin Institute, and it was used as a dormitory from the founding of the Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College until 1888. The two additions to the original building were placed in such a way as to form a quadrangle with a small open court in the center. The first floor of the building contained the Machine Shop Department, while the second floor was devoted to the Wood Working Department. The power for each department of the shop and division of floors was furnished by small dynamos driven from the large power plant just north of the barracks.

On the night of February 22nd, the Science Hall, a description of which has already been given (p. 36), was totally destroyed by fire. The Departments of Chemistry and Geology suffered a total loss of equipment. Fortunately, Prof. Smyth's collection of butterflies and birds had been removed to his house just before the fire, and so escaped injury. The Departments of Physics and Electricity sustained a partial loss of equipment, and what apparatus could be saved was greatly damaged by handling. The loss to the Institute was about $30,000.00, not including the severe loss sustained by the various professors in books, manuscripts and private collections. The entire corps and the faculty turned out at the alarm of fire and, with the fire-fighting apparatus belonging to the Institute, did all in their power to save the building, but without avail. Indeed, it was only by the most heroic efforts that Barracks No. 4 was saved. Cadet B. D. Hynes, of Illinois, so distinguished himself in his efforts to save No. 4 that he was presented with a gold medal by the Institute for his bravery. The scientific departments found temporary quarters in the other buildings on the campus, and regular work was resumed the second day after the fire.

Work on the rebuilding of the Science Hall was begun immediately; The new building was similar to the one destroyed by fire with the exception of a few changes in the interior arrangement. It was completed shortly after the opening of the following session. Barracks No. 5, a four-story brick building of sixty rooms had been completed in January. The new Auditorium, a handsome stone building on the south side of the campus, with a seating capacity of twelve hundred, was begun in September and completed in time for the 1905 commencement. A large stock-feeding barn and two cottages of four rooms each were completed during the session and assigned to the Department of Agriculture. A large wooden experimental barn was built for conducting experiments in cereals of different kinds. The new residence for Prof. Soule, at the east end of College Grove, was completed in June and Prof. Soule moved into it during the summer. Plans were made for the Agricultural Hall to be located just across the branch in front of the Creamery, and work on the building was begun the following session. This was to be a four-story, stone building for the accommodation of the Departments of Agriculture, Horticulture, and Veterinary Medicine.

The different departments of the Institute at this time had been greatly enlarged and developed as compared with their scope and efficiency fourteen years before. The facilities for laboratory work had been greatly increased; the equipment had been added to from year to year; buildings had been erected where none had existed before; and the attendance had increased from less than a hundred to more than seven hundred. Nine courses of study were offered this session: Agriculture, Horticulture, Applied Chemistry, Applied Geology, Preparatory Course for Medicine, General Science, and Civil, Mechanical, and Electrical Engineering—each of four years' duration and leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science (B. S). Post-graduate courses leading to the degree of Master of Science (M. S.), Civil Engineer (C. E.), and Mechanical Engineer (M. E.), were also offered. The thoroughness and efficiency of the work done in the various departments are best shown by the remarkable success of the graduates, who command remunerative positions in this and other countries.

The new class schedule went into effect the first of February, 1905. Under this schedule the morning was divided into five class periods of fifty minutes each, running from 8:20 A. M. to 12:30 P. M., thus allowing each regular student to have two vacant periods each morning for study and preparation. By this arrangement a student could also take up one or more extra subjects besides his regular work. The laboratory period was made to run from 1:30 P. M. to 3:45 P. M., and drill from 3:45 to 4:30.

The religious interests of the student-body have always been attended to. Attendance at morning prayers, held in the chapel every day except Sunday, and at the Sunday morning service of some one of the village churches, was then, as now, compulsory. The chapel services were conducted by the pastors of the several churches, each acting as chaplain in turn: Rev. D. J. Woods, Presbyterian; Rev. A. J. Nock, Episcopal; E. B. Jackson, Baptist; Rev. E. B. Kemm, Christian; Rev. J. M. Killian, Lutheran; and Rev. R. J. Fultz, Methodist. The Young Men's Christian Association, the Sunday Schools, and the Bible Classes, some conducted by members of the faculty and others by students, all tended to throw about the students an influence of refinement and culture and surround them with an atmosphere of morality and Christian activity.

The Lee and Maury Literary Societies held weekly meeting in their handsomely furnished halls on the third floor the Second Academic Building. For several years the student-body had shown very little interest in literary work; now a marked improvement began to be noticed. The weekly attendance grew larger, the membership was increased, and the public debates held in the spring, as well as the annual celebrations at commencement reflected great credit upon the work of the societies. The Library was remodelled under the supervision of Miss Lacy and many improvements effected. There were added at different times: three thousand, one hundred and sixty-nine new books, making a total of five thousand, seven hundred and twenty-five volumes; thirty-one new periodicals, making a total current periodical list of sixty-five. Forty newspaper files and five magazine racks were placed in the Library, together with five reading tables and one thousand one hundred and thirty-six feet of shelving.

The Institute, in co-operation with the State Board of Agriculture, conducted a number of institutes for farmers in different sections of the State. The college campus was extended so as to include the grove, just above the old Smithfield place. The campus now contained ninety acres, well set in grass, and with new walks and drives tastily and conveniently laid out. These were kept in excellent condition and added much to the beauty of the grounds.

The General Athletic Association, organized by the corps of cadets in the fall of 1891, for the control of all branches of college sports was, until the fall of 1901, entirely under student management. At this time, a system of graduate management was instituted, which proved very satisfactory. On December 12, 1903, however, the Executive Committee decided on a complete reorganization. Mr. J. H. Gibboney ('01) was asked to accept the position of Graduate Manager and to outline for the committee's approval a policy for the future guidance of the Athletic Association. The policy which he drew up, and which was approved by the committee, inaugurated the Athletic Council, which was to have complete control over every branch of athletics in the Institute. The Council was composed of two members of the faculty committee on athletics, one member from the post-graduate, one from the senior class, and the Graduate Manager, and the Treasurer, both from the post-graduates. Mr. H. L. Price ('98) was elected permanent Treasurer. Under this system of management our position in the athletic world was greatly raised, and football games were arranged with leading Northern colleges, such as the United States Military and Naval Academies and Dartmouth. Mr. John C. O'Connor, of Dartmouth, was secured to coach and train all athletic teams for the session of 1905-'06.

On May 26, 1905, the Institute suffered a severe loss in the death of Col. W. M. Patton, Professor of Civil Engineering and Dean of the Engineering Department. Col. Patton had been a member of the faculty since 1895. During that time had developed and strengthened his department and brought it up to a high plane of efficiency. The men who graduated under him during those years now hold positions of trust and responsibility with the leading engineering firms of the time. Col. Patton was an author as well as a teacher, and of his books on engineering subjects have been used as text-books in the leading engineering schools of the country. His death was a heavy blow to his associates in the faculty, his pupils, and to all others who had been so fortunate as be numbered among his friends.

(Published in the Bulletin of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute, October, 1908, Volume I, No. 4, pp. 22-49.